As practice shows, in order to insulate the soil in the garden from freezing, it is not at all necessary to erect a massive structure like a greenhouse or greenhouse. The warming of the beds can be done in a simpler way, using the frame or frameless method to protect the first crops from spring frosts. In addition, such designs will save seedlings from being defeated by pests that wintered in the soil.
Insulated soil is the simplest temporary small-sized construction on a personal plot, which is used at a time when weather conditions still do not allow growing vegetables in the open ground due to low temperatures. Shelters can be individual (for example, plastic bottles, glass jars, plastic film on the frame) and group.
You will learn how to insulate the beds at your dacha by reading this material.
To warm the soil for an early harvest, two methods of group shelters are used: frameless and frame.
The frameless method involves rolling the film on a flat surface and sprinkling its edges in the aisles with the earth. Such a shelter for 10-15 days accelerates the emergence of seedlings, plant growth.
The frame method has three varieties of shelter: earthen, arched, or tunnel, and frame, or panel. Panel shelters differ from gable greenhouses by the absence of side piping.
Any type of insulated soil is used to protect plants from frost and improve the microclimate in the first period of growth.
In the past, the shelter of heat-loving plants was widely practiced in front of paper caps that were expected to be frozen. This is explained simply: the paper was one of the most reliable and affordable materials for this purpose.
The new time is improving methods of protection against frost. Now for this purpose, plastic bottles are widely used, cut in half. They allow you to change the technology of growing a crop and make it possible to plant it earlier and at the same time protect it from pests, for example, from a crawling beetle that cuts young plants. Plastic bottles are widely used to optimize the microclimate and to protect pumpkin crops and seedling tomatoes from frost. After each hole after sowing the seeds of watermelon, melon, cucumber, zucchini, I set the upper half of the bottle.
In case of frost or cool weather, I close the neck with a stopper.
It is very good to speed up the emergence of seedlings and optimize the microclimate to cover the holes with packages of dairy products or juices. In packages, the bottom is cut, a 4-sided pipe is obtained. From four sides, it is trimmed by 2-3 cm along the length, the resulting “wings” are folded and set, raking up the soil on them (this ensures stability and protection from pests). Inside the pipe, an optimal microclimate is created for young plants. Remove when it begins to constrain plant growth.
Some gardeners have adapted to use cardboard packaging boxes to warm plants. Individual shelters are built in the form of film caps over plants, which are rarely planted, for example, with watermelon (one plant per 1 m2). To do this, a frame is made over the hole, it is possible from a vine, and a plastic bag or film is pulled.
Group Shelters for Warming Beds
To warm the soil, frame and frameless shelters are used, in which earth rollers serve as a support for the film. Earth frames are arranged on a plowed field with a machine that cuts ridges and at the same time sows seeds and spreads the film in the form of a tunnel 100-150 m long, sprinkling its edges with soil. Under such shelter, cucumber, watermelon, melon grow 25–35 days, after which the film is rolled up by a machine. This method of growing cucumber 4 times increases the yield of early production compared to open ground.
Arched, or tunnel, shelters are widely used. The framework for them is made in the form of semi-oval arches from a rod, a metal wire rod or rods. Bent arcs are installed at a distance of 0.6-1.6 m (this depends on the material) and are connected from above and from two sides with twine or wire. A film is pulled onto the frame. From the ends, it is tied with twine to stakes and sprinkled with earth on the sides. This method of fastening the film is simple, but not very convenient in operation. Each time, for ventilation, it is necessary to rake, and then again pour earth onto the film. It is more convenient when only one edge of the film is sprinkled with earth, and the second is nailed to a wooden plank, on which the film is wound during ventilation.
How to Warm the Soil in the Garden from Freezing
How to warm the soil in the garden with your own hands? The standard width of the shelters is 0.6-2.5 m, the height is 0.3-0.8 m, the length is arbitrary. If you make a wide shelter from two canvases of film, then the arcs at the top are fastened with a wooden block, to which the film is nailed with shingles and nails. These frames are easy to use, easy to install in the field and are transported during mechanized processing. The semi-cylindrical shape of the shelters increases their wind resistance.
Tunnel shelters of insulated soil can be of different types. For example, under shelter, plants are sown or planted seedlings in an ellipse with semi-axes of 80 and 60 cm. Accordingly, arcs are installed in this contour and everything is covered with a film. After 3-4 weeks, the film is removed, and the plants are tied to a pole with a wheel at the top, which is installed in the center. Over time, a tent is formed, which provides the optimal microclimate for the cucumber. A container of water or fermented mullein is placed next to the pole.
The fundamental difference between shelters and gable greenhouses is the lack of side strapping.
As a shelter for heat-loving cultures, it is advisable to use a primitive “jalabudka”. Of the 4 bricks placed on spoon faces, a fence is made. In the center, one brick is installed vertically on the poke and covered with a film. The film is sprinkled with earth. Cucumber seeds are sown in four corners or melons and watermelon in two corners. Brick has a high heat capacity, heats up during the day, and gives off heat at night. Instead of bricks, you can use plastic bottles filled with water. Guaranteed frost protection. There is practically no need to ventilate such shelters for 3-4 weeks until the plants run into the film. Gradually, shelter is ajar, preparing plants for open ground conditions.