The installation of a well in the country is one of the most common ways to provide a site with water. Most often, structures with reinforced concrete rings are installed. It is much easier to dig this option out of the well with your own hands since special devices will not be required. The independent device of a tubular well is more difficult due to the need to use complex equipment. However, when water is deposited at a depth of more than 20 m, this is the only possible method.
Do-It-Yourself Device for Water in the Country House
Wells or wells can be used as sources of water for irrigation of the plot in the country, they are equipped with their own hands to save money. Depending on the level of groundwater occurrence, these structures can be of different depths.
Which type of well or well should be preferred will depend on the conditions of a particular summer cottage.
When constructing a well or well, it is important to consider the properties of the soil, the depth, and location of the aquifers, the productivity of the water core, and the chemical properties of water.
First, you need to talk with local residents to find out how they get water. Surely, many of them know how to dig a well themselves, and can give some practical advice. After that, you can start your own research. It happens that earlier in this area wells were dug, and then the water left and now it is required to dig to a greater depth – and this is already a well. Or groundwater has become unsuitable for irrigation. You must first find out everything, and then think about whether to dig a well or drill a well and what may be needed to ensure water supply to the site.
The deeper the aquifer is, the cleaner the water. But during the construction of wells, one should not forget that if the soil is contaminated, then the water seeping through it becomes unsuitable for drinking. That’s why wells are never built near farms, dunghills, cesspools, etc. According to sanitary standards, the distance between them and the well should be at least 20 m. In addition, wells are not built along river banks, in lowlands flooded by floods. or pouring rain.
As you can see in the photo, the wells at the cottage with their own hands are single buildings, it is better if they are away from any structures.
If it is customary to extract water from wells in a given area, then it is better to resort to this method, and if wells predominate, then this method is more acceptable. In any case, with the installation of a well in the country with your own hands, you will definitely need to take water samples from local sources for analysis.
A water supply system with water intake from a well is arranged in a similar way, only the pump, in this case, should be located together with a hydraulic accumulator and other devices in a specially allocated room – a pumping station located in the basement of the house or an extension specially built for this purpose.
Wells are used where there is no electricity or it works intermittently and you can manually raise water from a well in a bucket on a rope. The well is more durable – the service life is 50 years or more. Well, construction is also cheaper than drilling a well. You can equip it manually, without resorting to the help of specialists with their equipment. On how to dig a well in the country, you will learn on this page.
Where to Dig a Well on a Site with Your Own Hands
Wells are recommended to be built on any, but not on marshy terrain. If you have not yet decided where to dig a well in the area, it is preferable to take water samples from neighboring wells for analysis, and if the result is satisfactory, you can also dig a well in your area.
It is desirable that a plentiful aquifer is located at not very large depth. This can be found out in the old grandfather’s way, observing the amount of dew falling at 4-5 in the morning for six months. If there is a lot of dew, then the groundwater lies close to the surface of the earth, and if not, digging a well does not make sense.
Suitable water for wells can be located at a depth of 4-15 m. To ensure watering and other needs of the suburban area, the aquifer must be powerful enough – 200 l / day.
When choosing where to dig a well, several recommendations need to be taken into account: it should be at least 20 m from toilets, cesspools, sewers, compost heaps, etc.; it is not recommended to place the well too close to the house, otherwise washing out the sand from the quicksand will lead to foundation movements and further to the destruction of the home.
The optimum temperature of the water from the well is 8-12 ° C. A lower temperature is harmful to the health of people and animals, as it can lead to colds. Like drinking water, only ground and artesian water are used.
When constructing a well for water, it is necessary to develop a water supply project from the well to the points of water supply – to the site or to the house where the pipeline, pump, power supply points to it, points of distribution of irrigation to the site, etc. will be located.
Given all the data, and most importantly, knowing what depth of the well is required, you can first purchase all the necessary materials, and then get to work.
How to Dig a Well with Rings in the Country Yourself
The following describes how to dig a well with rings to provide the site with clean water. This is one of the most common options that are easy to do on your own.
Before digging a well, in a chosen place you need to clear and level the site and draw a circle with a radius of 10-20 cm more than the radius of the planned ring. After that, you can dig a hole of a given diameter with a depth of 90-100 cm and install a reinforced concrete ring in it so that it protrudes 10 cm above the surface of the earth. Then a hole is dug from the ring below to the depth of another ring. Soil from the pit can be folded into a container and fed up.
The first ring should be lowered down, and on top of the brackets, install the second, making a hole in it for the outlet of the water pipe with a diameter 1.5 times the diameter of the insert pipe. Thus, the well is dug to the desired depth.
At the level of the 6-8th ring, water will begin to arrive intensively in the well – this means that you can stop. It is advisable that at the bottom of the well there are three aquifers – fontanels – then water will always arrive in it, even on the hottest summer days.
After that, with the help of a pump, it is necessary to pump out water and sand washed with it from the well, and then go deeper into the soil by another 40-50 cm. In this case, the pump must constantly pump out intensively arriving water. Then the shaft of the well for water, equipped with your own hands, you need to cover with a lid or tarpaulin and leave for a day. During this time, the well will be filled with water, and if its level is more than 1-1.5 m, you don’t have to dig anymore, if less, you need to pump out water and dig again until the water rises to the desired level.
After the good shaft is dug up, small stones should be laid on its bottom (without water), and a layer of crushed stone 30-50 cm thick should be poured on top – this will serve as a filter for the water entering the well. All the cracks between the concrete rings must be sealed with cement-sand mortar so that ground and rainwater do not fall into the well.
Diy PUMP Connection to the Well
To deliver water from a well in a do-it-yourself site to parsing points in a house or in a utility room specially attached to a well, you need to install a pump or a pumping station.
For wells, pumps are used that can pump water from a depth of up to 9 m and raise it to a height of up to 40 m (for house maintenance).
With a considerable distance of the well from the site, it is worth using a centrifugal self-priming pump with an external ejector, which is capable of lifting water from a depth of up to 45 m.
How to install the pump in the well so that it clearly performs its function? Before connecting the pump to the well with your own hands, it is necessary to install a coarse filter, a check valve, and a fine filter. Further, in the process of how to install the pump in the well, pressure switches, a pressure gauge and other devices that are necessary for the water supply of the site and the house are connected to the line.
These devices are followed by a water pipe that leads to the collector, where water is distributed to the points of consumption. When connecting the pump, the well must have a separate control panel (in addition to the general panel for powering the house).
First of all, a pump or pump station is installed, and only then you can start laying water pipes in the area. To do this, you need to think over a water distribution plan in advance: take one line to the house, the other to the site. On the site, it is also necessary to have a clear plan for the distribution of water to individual beds, bushes or trees.
To lay the water supply from the well closer to the site, you need to dig a trench below the depth of freezing of the soil and lay a pipe in it, one end of which needs to be brought into the hole in the well ring, and then bent and lowered down to the water itself. The end of the pipe should be about 30-40 cm above the bottom of the well. A mesh inlet filter must be installed inside the pipe.
After this, it is necessary to pump out all the water from the well again, drive a pin into the bottom and attach a pipe to it. The hole in the concrete ring where the pipe passes must be carefully sealed with cement mortar, and bury the trench in which it is laid. Around the well at a distance of 1.5 m, you also need to make a clay castle with a depth of 40 cm and a thickness of 50 cm – this will protect the well from rain and groundwater.
Do-It-Yourself Tubular Well Device
Do-it-yourself tubular well without certain skills and knowledge is not easy. Such wells are usually used when the depth of the aquifer is more than 20 m.
A tubular well is a borehole, the walls of which are reinforced with water casing pipes. Their length is 4-6 m. The pipes are connected using couplings.
Casing pipes for wells, especially deep ones, are best-used steel since they are not only more reliable than others, but also easier to connect. The casing pipe consists of individual links. Their length is 2-4 m. Threaded couplings or welding are used to connect steel links. Which method of connecting the links to choose depends on the diameter of the pipe. So, pipes having an internal diameter of 50 mm are easier to connect with couplings, and pipes with a diameter of 100 mm or more can be welded. To connect the casing links by welding, it is necessary to cut it into separate links (2-3 m long) with an oxygen torch. The cut line should be done with a little head. This is necessary in order to facilitate centering during welding, and also so that the joint does not have large gaps. Each incision must be marked with paint.
The links are centered before welding using a jig from two corners or three steel plates, which should be welded to the rods. This will give strength to the joint. If there is no welding or non-steel casing is used, the links can be joined with steel plates on bolts.
The width of the pads is 15-30 mm, the length is 100-200 mm, the thickness is 6-9 mm. The narrow edges of the linings should be cut at an angle of 30 °. This is necessary so that the tool does not cling to the inner gaskets and the outer ones do not interfere with the passage of the pipe through the ground. On the inner linings for fasteners, a thread is cut. But the connection of steel or cast iron casing can be made without internal linings. To do this, cut the thread directly into the wall.
If the cudgel of a well is large, several pipes are lowered into it, the diameter of which is directly dependent on the depth and thickness of the aquifer, as well as the diameter of the filter and pump.