You should resort to drilling a well underwater with your own hands only if you are not afraid of the complexity of the work and its significant cost. There are several types of good drilling, and the decision which one to choose depends on quite obvious factors, the main of which is the depth of the aquifer. Wells “on sand” are easier to drill on their own than on “limestone”, therefore this method is practiced much more often.
Where to Drill a Well “on the Sand” and Its Depth
A do-it-yourself water well can produce cleaner and better water than well, but its arrangement is more expensive and troublesome.
The place where to drill the well is selected according to the same principles as for the well, only, in this case, it is advisable to drill the shaft closer to the site.
The complexity and depth of drilling depend on the selected well type and method of drilling.
Depending on the depth and variety of the layer from which water is taken, the wells are different, but for private use, artesian wells are most in-demand – “on sand” and “on limestone”.
The “sand” well is less deep – during drilling, the upper aquifers of the sand horizon are affected, which go after a thick layer of loam that filters the groundwater. The depth of the well “on the sand” can reach 25-50 m and depends on the level of occurrence of the aquifer.
Sometimes during drilling a well “on the sand” it is possible to get into the bed of an underground river at a depth of about 15 m – and this can be considered a great success for the owner of the site. In this case, pipes and filters during operation will not become clogged with sand, since the structure of this layer is formed by pebbles.
A well with an underground river can last 15–20 years, while a conventional “sand” well is usually operational for 5–7 years.
It is possible to drill a well “on the sand” manually without the help of professionals, which will not only save money but also increase the likelihood of getting into a good aquifer. Before you drill a well with your own hands, you can perform trial manual drilling of several sites in search of the most profitable. In this case, excavation will be less than with machine drilling. In addition, machine drilling makes it possible to break into a given depth in only one place, which reduces the likelihood of finding the most advantageous position.
Limestone Well: Drilling Depth and Water Quality
The depth of the “limestone” well is 135 m or more, reaching the aquifer in the limestone rocks. Water at such a depth, of course, is much better and cleaner than that in the upper layers, and here its supply is almost unlimited – in any case, the minimum supply is 1,500 liters.
In addition, when using such a well, special equipment for water intake is not required, since the water itself will “shoot up” at high pressure.
The main advantage of an artesian well is that sewage or groundwater never gets into it. Therefore, the quality of the water from the “limestone” well is much higher. This allows you to minimize the use of various filters for water purification.
The service life of an artesian well is 50 years, like that of a well, but drilling costs much more than constructing a well or a well “on the sand”, because of the much greater depth. Self-drilling of a “limestone” well is practically impossible.
In addition, registration is necessary for its arrangement on the site, since the limestone aquifers belong to the strategic reserves of the state. So the construction of wells “on limestone”, on the one hand, is very tempting, and on the other – quite troublesome and costly.
How to Drill a Well Underwater “on the Sand” with Your Own Hands
It is independently recommended to resort to a well sand drilling technique.
Before you drill a well for water with your own hands, you need to determine the parameters of the occurrence of groundwater. To do this, you can ask your neighbors what the depth of the wells in this area is. If it does not exceed 25 m, then there is a chance to drill a well on their own.
It is better to choose a place for drilling a well “on the sand” with your own hands near the house. Sometimes the good shaft is located directly in the utility room or extension connected to the cottage.
Various designs can be used for drilling. In some cases, if the water-resistant layer lies close to the surface of the earth, a manual drill can also be used.
Before you drill a well in the country with your own hands, get the necessary equipment. For the construction of the well, a special manual mechanism is required – a drilling rig with a column suspended from it. The basis of the equipment is a tower that looks like a tripod. Its supports can be made of metal pipes or logs by connecting them in the upper part with a kingpin. Here you need to place the drill column lifting unit and connect the two legs of the derrick with a winch-collar. The drill column is the main element that performs the main work – drilling. It consists of several 3-meter rods connected by couplings. Sometimes rods with a length of 1.5 m are required – this depends on the depth to which the well needs to be drilled. When drilling, the column is immersed in the ground, and its length is adjusted using rods, which can be made independently from water pipes equipped with steel couplings. In addition, drilling heads are required for drilling, which is selected depending on the nature of the soil.
The head is an impact or cutting element of a drilling rig. It must be screwed onto the column using a threaded adapter. During the immersion of the head in the soil, the soil will fill the cavity of the drill.
For various rocks, appropriate nozzles should be used: a “spoon” is needed for drilling soft soil, a “coil” for dense, and a “chisel” for very hard rocks. With the help of the chaff, the loosened soil rises up. To avoid shedding on the walls of the well, it is necessary to use casing. It can be ordinary plastic water pipes – easy and convenient to install. The bottom of the pipe is a kind of shoe with a smooth or serrated edge.
As you can see, the well can be drilled using special equipment, part of which is purchased in the store, and part is made independently.
How to Drill a Well in the Country with Your Own Hands
Read the detailed instructions on how to properly drill a well with your own hands, and watch the corresponding video.
Before drilling a well underwater, at the preparatory stage, a pit should be punched – a hole measuring 1.5 X 1.5 m and a depth of not more than 2 m. The pit is designed to protect the topsoil from shedding.
To strengthen the walls and floor of the pit, boards are used, and preferably at least 5 cm thick – the strength of the floor depends on this. On top of the pit, you need to close the second flooring. For sand wells, pits should be made small in width and depth, while for artesian wells they should be made several meters deep.
The next step is the hole of the well. Work is performed in the following order: construction of a derrick for drilling; cleaning the upper floor; determination of the center point on the bottom flooring; making holes of the same diameter as the shoe and coupling; sawing out the second hole in the upper deck. It is important to maintain the accuracy of the vertical created by the two guide holes. This will serve as a guarantee of quality drilling.
After that, you can proceed with the actual drilling process, having prepared all the necessary equipment in advance.
The finished drilling rig should be equipped with a head and a winch mechanism. The bar should be passed through both holes down (if necessary, it can be increased) and the gate should be secured. It is more convenient to rotate the gate together, and the third person at this time should adjust the position of the bar.
For drilling a shallow well, only a drill string can be used, directing it strictly vertically downward. Drilling with great depth will require a tripod with a lift.
On the column, you need to put a mark, departing from the upper flooring 60-70 cm. Then you need to lower it to the indicated depth and remove it back, removing the earth raised with the drill. Thus, the column will have to be immersed and raised several times until the required depth is reached. To penetrate to great depths, the rod will need to be increased by connecting another pipe to it with a sleeve.
Depending on the stability of the soil, a drilling method is chosen – with or without casing pipes. With a stable and dense soil, it is necessary to drill the entire well without using casing pipes. If the rocks in the well under construction are soft and crumble, then already at a depth of 2-3 m you need to install a pipe equipped with a shoe. The diameter of the pipe should be wider than the diameter of the couplings, so the pipe will enter the shaft with difficulty. In order to place it there, it is necessary to use a sledgehammer or immerse the pipe, with effort screwing it into the hole. As casing, you can use metal or polypropylene water pipes of the desired diameter.
To avoid the collapse of soft and crumbling rocks, it is recommended to lower the drill not too deeply, but slightly below the end of the casing half the length of the drill. As a result, the entire drilling process will alternate with the installation of casing pipes, which are growing as the unit sinks deeper.
When the drill reaches the water-resistant layer, work can be stopped. Next, the well will need to be thoroughly cleaned with a baffle, and a filter should be installed at the bottom, which will serve as a barrier to mechanical impurities. As a filter, you can use a fine-mesh metal mesh and a perforated pipe with a small gap.
Do-It-Yourself Water Well Setup
When the well is ready, it needs to be equipped outside and decorate the aboveground part. First of all, you need to remove the flooring boards, dismantle the pit wall sheathing and backfill, and then install a submersible or surface pump to pump water from the well.
When arranging a well for water with their own hands, the aboveground part of the structure can be decorated with a simple canopy or a small arbor. Other options are possible – it all depends on your imagination.
The well can be decorated in rustic antiquity – with a canopy and carved edging. As decor, you can use pergolas, braided by climbing plants, and ornamental shrubs, and artificial stones that are original in shape and color. There can be many options – everything will depend only on one’s own desire.