Among the priority tasks of gardeners are measures aimed at improving the condition of soils, because it is from the soil that plants receive all the substances necessary for proper nutrition and produce moisture in dry periods. But you should not overdo it when doing these works – too frequent digging and superficial wetting will lead to the formation of a crust.
The soil occupied by garden crops should be fertile. Fertility is understood as the ability of the soil to continuously supply plants with water and nutrients, to carry them through the roots to each organ of the plant.
Therefore, the main task of an amateur gardener is to regularly take measures to improve soil fertility in the garden. Without such events, you should not hope for a good harvest. You will learn how to improve the soil on the garden plot by reading this material.
The Main Measures to Improve the Condition, Structure, and Properties of the Soil
The soil composition is different. Heavy – clay and loamy, light – sand and sandy loam. Therefore, a gardener needs to know what materials or fertilizers are required to improve soil properties. If the soil is heavy, then either hummus or peat are applied, as well as mineral and organometal fertilizers. This will contribute to improving the structure of the soil, increasing its fertility. The soil should have a finely lumpy structure like “steamed millet porridge”. The ideal island with a lump structure the size of a small pea.
Soils can be acidic, neutral, etc. The factors affecting the soil are well known in these cases – when performing work to improve the soil, fertilizers, and lime must be applied (with increased acidity). To do this, each amateur gardener must have an acid meter or he must be able to visually determine the acidity of the soil in his area.
Many gardeners, without checking the quality of their soil, after a couple of years trying to bring lime or sand into the garden or under garden crops. In this case, of course, for the most part, they do not adhere to any norms.
Among the main measures to improve the soil is also the sowing of green manure on green manure with their subsequent incorporation into the ground, which helps to improve the structure of the earth and enrich it with nitrogen.
Digging from autumn to winter is the most important agricultural technique for improving soil quality, contributing to greater accumulation of moisture, the destruction of various wintering stages of pests and weeds.
Land cultivation essentially boils down to digging, and even not in all parts of its garden. When digging the soil in the autumn, manure, compost, 2/3 of the recommended doses of basic mineral fertilizers for winter applications are introduced and embedded in the soil. Gardeners bring it according to the principle “you cannot spoil porridge with butter” and make a gross mistake. When carrying out measures to improve the condition of soils, remember that not all crops can be applied with this fresh organic fertilizer. For example, strawberries can greatly develop the vegetative mass, and the yield will be insignificant. With an excess of fresh manure under fruit trees and grapes, chlorosis can also occur with subsequent far-reaching consequences. Strong vegetative growth will prevail over generative. Therefore, improving the soil in the garden should be done wisely,
Causes of Soil Fatigue
The soil must be healthy, but gardeners with their sometimes unreasonable actions “tire” it.
Why does soil fatigue arise?
- Due to the unreasonable exploitation of the soil, i.e., the cultivation of monocultures, which led to the accumulation of phytopathogenic organisms in the soil.
- The use of large chemistry leads to the death of beneficial microorganisms.
- Replacing natural friability, i.e., frequent digging and unreasonable watering on the surface of the soil, which gives the sole and crust.
- Destruction of earthworms (5 thousand worms per hundred square meters per season pass through themselves a volume of soil corresponding to their own weight – 500 kg) due to improper and untimely application of mineral fertilizers.
The causes of soil fatigue are many. The fact is that throughout the life of a fruit tree, harmful toxic substances accumulate in the soil, waste products of the root system, leaves, flowers, fruits, and fungal diseases. Pests also continue to remain with the remains of the dead plant, and all this is mineralized even with the help of soil microorganisms rather soon. When planting a young tree in such a place, it is greatly inhibited.
There are other reasons why it is impossible to plant new trees in old places immediately after uprooting – this is the unilateral removal of nutrients, the deterioration of the physical condition of the soil.
Thus, soil fatigue leads to a sharp drop in yield with repeated irreplaceable repetition of the culture of the same agricultural plants in the same place. Therefore, without measures to improve soil quality can not do.
Measures to Improve Soil Fertility in the Garden: Effective Ways
To improve the soil in the garden, to relieve its fatigue, you need to give the land a rest, that is, use clean fumes. It is necessary to observe fruit-bearing, crop rotation: sow rapeseed, mustard, rye and other crops for green manure.
An effective way to improve and improve the soil is to plant nettles, and watering (1:10) or spraying (1:20) plants with nettle infusion will increase the number of earthworms and protect against invasion of slugs.
It’s a shame to see pieces of moldy bread thrown to the side of the road in the gardens: soak it in water, dilute it with water 2-3 times and scatter it over the soil. This measure to improve soil will give a good effect, improve the health of the earth, increase its productivity and improve the structure of the soil, disturbed by endless digging.
Do not forget to make compost: let the effective microorganisms deal closely with the restructuring of the soil layer.
A garden plot is an agroecosystem, not self-developing, not self-regulating, but managed by a person. “A land without a master is an orphan”, you always need to remember the role of man in the agricultural system.
The soil has a memory – plowed and not populated by anything, it is overgrown with wheatgrass, boneless bonfire, that is, it quickly restores the steppe ecosystem.
The soil has fertility, that is, it is a natural body, satisfies plants in the indispensable factors of life (water, food, etc.). The vicious practice of not digging in the garden should be excluded from the use of the amateur gardener.
To improve fertility, digging the soil in the garden gives a lot, namely:
- It creates a loose layer (clods in winter should not be broken).
- Promotes better soil aeration.
- Accumulation of oxygen in the surface layer.
- During the winter, a significant part of pests wintering in the soil freezes and dies.
- Autumn-winter precipitation is well washed and the upper layer is freed from accumulated harmful irrigation and mineral fertilizers from harmful salts.
- Proper digging in the aisles of the garden contributes to the entrainment of the active root system to a depth of 50 cm. This is the maximum optimal depth for the location of the active root system. At this depth, the root system is not damaged by low temperatures and does not overheat in summer. We remind you that digging near the stem, especially if the tree is on dwarf or semi-dwarf rootstocks, is carried out carefully, shallow (5-8 cm). Digging is carried out radially with respect to the stem.
Autumn digging in the garden promotes the restoration of nutrients in the soil, improves the water-air regime, the flow of oxygen to the root system, while frequent watering compacts the soil, destroy the structure, in a word, inhibits it. By digging, productive soil moisture is achieved, i.e., the need for frequent watering is reduced.
Recently, everyone has been advocating for flat-cutting soil cultivation with the Fokin gun. However, the soil is compacted after such treatment, new, unprecedented types of weeds appear. Irrigation water rolls up, but is not absorbed, the plant begins to “physiological dryness”, it grows poorly and develops.
To improve soil fertility, the garden site needs to be dug, but it is reasonable to dig, use the Fokin plane cutter in time, reduce watering, and if you do them, then deep, not superficial. Loosen the crust immediately, and then the soil will thank you with the harvest.